The 2018 Wimbledon Championships

The 2018 Wimbledon Championships, a Grand Slam tennis tournament, took place at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in Wimbledon, London, United Kingdom. The main tournament began on Monday, 2 July 2018 and finished on Sunday, 15 July 2018. Novak Djokovic won the Gentleman’s Singles title and Angelique Kerber won the Ladies Singles title. The 2018 tournament was the 132nd edition of The Championships, the 125th staging of the Ladies’ Singles Championship event, the 51st in the Open Era and the third Grand Slam tournament of the year. It was played on grass courts and was part of the ATP World Tour, the WTA Tour, the ITF Junior tour and the NEC Tour. The tournament was organised by All England Lawn Tennis Club and International Tennis Federation.

Roger Federer and Garbiñe Muguruza were both unsuccessful in defending their 2017 titles. Federer lost in the quarterfinals to eventual finalist Kevin Anderson, while Muguruza lost in the second round to Alison Van Uytvanck.

The list of champions in the main categories is as follows:

Men’s Singles– Novak Djokovic

Women’s Singles– Angelique Kerber

Men’s Doubles– Mike Bryan/ Jack Sock

Women’s Doubles-Barbora Krejčíková /Kateřina Siniaková

Mixed Doubles-Alexander Peya /Nicole Melichar

Boys’ Singles-Tseng Chun-hsin

Girls’ Singles-Iga Świątek

Boys Doubles-Yankı Erel /Otto Virtanen

Girls’ Doubles-Wang Xinyu / /Wang Xiyu


Filmfare Awards 2018

Some facts about Filmfare Awards

  • The Filmfare ceremony is one of the oldest and most prestigious film events in India.
  • The Filmfare Awards, presented by The Times Group, are a set of awards that honour artistic and technical excellence in the Hindi-language film industry of India.
  • The awards were first introduced in 1954, the same year as the National Film Awards. They were initially referred to as the “Clare Awards” or “The Clares” after Clare Mendonca, the editor of The Times of India.
  • A dual voting system was developed in 1956. Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted on by both the public and a committee of experts.
  • In the first awards function, held on 21 March 1954 at the Metro Theatre of Mumbai, only five awards were presented: Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress, and Best Music Director. Do Bigha Zameen was the first movie to win the award for Best Film. The first winners for other four categories were: Bimal Roy for his direction of Do Bigha Zameen, Dilip Kumar for his performance in Daag, Meena Kumari for her performance in Baiju Bawra, and Naushad Ali for his music in Baiju Bawra.
  • Filmfare Awards also introduced the Short FilmCategory in 2017, with Vidya Balan and Gauri Shinde on the jury. The People’s Choice Award For Best Short Film was presented to Khamakha. Short films like Chutney, Matitali Kusti and Taandav won awards as well. The statuette, depicting a woman whose arms are upraised in a dance number with her fingers touching, is commonly referred to as “The Black Lady” (or “The Lady in Black”). Originally designed by N.G. Pansare under the supervision of Times of India’s art director Walter Langhammer, it is generally made of bronze.

The list of Fimfare 2018 Award Winners

















Readings for Prelims Sports

Indian Games: National Champions 2018-19

Santosh Trophy 2019

The 2019 Santosh Trophy Final was a match between Services and Punjab on 21 April 2019 in Ludhiana, Punjab in which the former won. The match was a culmination of the 2018–19 Santosh Trophy, the 73rd edition of the football competition contested by regional state associations and government institutions under the All India Football Federation. Services won their sixth title by defeating Punjab 1–0. Bikash Thapa was declared the Man of the Match.

National Championship Hockey India (Senior Men)

  Punjab has won the 8th Hockey India Senior Men National Championship title at the Padma Shri Mohammad Shahid Synthetic HockeyStadium in Lucknow on March 25, 2018. The Final of the 8th Hockey India Senior Men National Championship 2018 (A Division) . Punjab defeated Petroleum Sports Promotion Board 2-1 in a well-fought encounter. The Defending Champions Railway Sports Promotion Board beat Air India Sports Promotion Board 5-3 in a game decided by penalty shoot out for clinching the Bronze medal.

Women Senior Hockey National 2018

Railway Sports Promotion Board (RSPB) on Sunday lifted the 8th Senior National Women’s Hockey Championship title, thrashing Madhya Pradesh 4-0 in the final to finish the tournament without losing a game. In the bronze medal match, Haryana beat home team Jharkhand 2-0.

National Volleyball Championship 2019

Karnataka men and Kerala women emerged winners in the 67th Senior National Volleyball Championship at Nehru indoor stadium in Chennai. In a clash on January 01, 2019 in  67th National Volleyball Championship at the Nehru Indoor Stadium,  Karnataka defeated Tamil Nadu to win win their maiden national senior (men) crown 3-1 (21-25, 36-34, 25-18, 25-14 In the women’s summit clash, Railways  defeated Kerala.

National Badminton Championship 2019

In the Women’s section, Saina Nehwal displayed a brilliant game in the final as she registered a comfortable win against PV Sindhu to retain title on Februar , 2019. Saina outplayed her opponent in a match that lasted just over 30 minutes. She beat beats PV Sindhu 21-18, 21-15 in straight games to retain women’s singles title. This is now the fourth national title for Saina.

In the men’s section Sourabh Verma completed a hat-trick of titles at the Senior Badminton Nationals, claiming the men’s singles crown after defeating young Lakshya Sen in straight games, in the 83rd edition of the tournament in Guwahati on Saturday.

The 26-year-old, who had won the title in 2011 and 2017, showed great composure and tactical brilliance to outdo the 17-year-old Lakshya, an Asian junior champion, 21-18 21-13 in a lop-sided contest.

National Lawn Tennis Championship 2018 or Fenesta Open national tennis championships

Siddharth Vishwakarma stunned top seed Arjun Kadhe to clinch the men’s singles at the Fenesta Open national tennis championships (Delhi; October 06 , 2018) . Serving with power and hitting ferocious strokes, Siddharth won 6-2, 6-7 (2), 6-3 to grab his maiden national title.

In the women’s final, Mahak Jain was too good for Natasha Palha. The 17-year-old raced to a 6-1, 6-2 victory, claiming her second successive national title. Mahak showed the most consistent game all week, chasing every ball and hitting deep to create openings. Playing in junior Grand Slams has raised the confidence of the Indore teenager.

In the boys’ under-18 final, Siddhanth Banthia lived up to the promise, beating Calvin Golmei 7-6, 6-2. The girls’ under-18 title was won by Humera Shaik, who beat Rashmikaa Bhamidipaty 6-2, 6-4.

National Table Tennis Championship 2019

Veteran A. Sharath Kamal and youngster Archana Kamath both scripted history while becoming the singles national champion in men’s and women’s events, respectively, on the concluding day of the 80th 11Sports National Table Tennis Championship. Kamlesh Mehta had won eight national titles.

While Sharath saved a match point before scraping past his arch-rival and Petroleum Sports Promotion Board (PSPB) team-mate G. Sathiyan in the grand finale that lived up to its reputation at the packed J.N. Indoor Stadium arena to win a record ninth National championship title, Kamath became the second-youngest female National champion after edging past West Bengal’s Krittwika Sinha Roy.

Readings for Prelims Sports

Winners of latest major cricketing events

Ranji Trophy 2019

Vidarbha won the trophy second time. They were defending champions. The final took place between Vidarbha and Saurashtra, starting on 3 February 2019. Vidarbha defeated Saurashtra by 78 runs in the final, to become the sixth team in the tournament’s history to retain their title.

Irani Cup

It was played as a one-off match between the Vidarbha (the winner of the 2018–19 Ranji Trophy) and Rest of India cricket team, from 12 February 2019 to 16 February 2019.Player of the Match was Akshay Karnewar (Vidarbha).

IPL 2018

Chennai Super Kings were crowned as winners by defeating SunRisers Hyderabad. Shane Watson remained unbeaten on 117 helping Chennai Super Kings clinch their third IPL title after an 8-wicket win over SunRisers Hyderabad.

2017 ICC Champions Trophy 

In an outstanding performance Pakistan beat India comfortably to win their maiden ICC Champions Trophy, outclassing them across all departments to win by 180 runs, which was the largest margin of victory in the final of an ICC ODI tournament. The final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy was played on 18 June at The Oval in London, to determine the winner of the eighth edition of the ICC Champions Trophy. Pakistan qualified for the final by defeating the hosts England convincingly by 8 wickets in the first semi-final at Cardiff in Wales on 14 June, and reached their maiden Champions Trophy final. India, the defending champions and favourites, came into the final by defeating Bangladesh comfortably by 9 wickets in the second semi-final at Birmingham on 15 June, to reach their fourth Champions Trophy final, a record. Pakistan, who were massive underdogs entering as the lowest-ranked team in the competition, became the seventh nation to win the Champions Trophy, and it was their first ICC ODI tournament title since 1992. Fakhar Zaman of Pakistan received the Man of the Match award for scoring a sublime 114. Shikhar Dhawan of India received the Golden Bat award for scoring 338 runs in the tournament while Hasan Ali of Pakistan received the Golden Ball award for taking 13 wickets; he was also adjudged the Man of the Series for his outstanding contribution towards Pakistan’s first ICC tournament title since 2009.

The ICC Champions Trophy was a one day international (ODI) cricket tournament organised by the International Cricket Council(ICC), second in importance only to the Cricket World Cup. It was inaugurated as the ICC KnockOut Tournament in 1998 and has been played approximately every four years since. Its name was changed to the Champions Trophy in 2002.

A total of thirteen teams competed in the eight editions of the tournament, with eight competing in the last edition in 2017. ICC Champions Trophy was scrapped keeping in line with ICC’s goal of having only one pinnacle tournament for each of the three formats of international cricket. Australia and India have won the tournament twice each (India’s 2002 win was shared with Sri Lanka), while South Africa, New Zealand, Sri Lanka (shared with India), West Indies and Pakistan have won it once each. No non-full member team has ever crossed the first round of the Champions Trophy.

ICC Cricket World Cup 2015

Australia defeated New Zealand by 7 wickets to win their fifth ICC Cricket World Cup. Fourteen teams played 49 matches in 14 venues. The hosting rights were awarded at the same time as those of the 2011 Cricket World Cup, which Australia and New Zealand had originally bid to host, and the 2019 Cricket World Cup, which was awarded to England. The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket. The event is organised by the sport’s governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), every four years, with preliminary qualification rounds leading up to a finals tournament. The tournament is one of the world’s most viewed sporting events and is considered the “flagship event of the international cricket calendar” by the ICC. The first World Cup was organised in England in June 1975, with the first ODI cricket match having been played only four years earlier. From the 1987 tournament onwards, hosting has been shared between countries under an unofficial rotation system, with fourteen ICC members having hosted at least one match in the tournament. The World Cup is open to all members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), although the highest-ranking teams receive automatic qualification. The remaining teams are determined via the World Cricket League and the ICC World Cup Qualifier.

2018 Under-19 Cricket World Cup

The 2018 Under-19 Cricket World Cup was held in New Zealand. India and Australia played in the finals at Mount Maunganui on Feb 3 2018. It was the 12th Edition of the Under-19 World Cup. India defeated Australia by 8 wickets, with Manjot Kalra scoring a match-winning 101.

2017 ICC Women’s World Cup

The 2017 ICC Women’s World Cup Final was a one-day international cricket match played between England and India to decide the winner of the 2017 Women’s World Cup. England won the game by nine runs to secure their fourth World Cup title, with Anya Shrubsole named player of the match.


Know the Nobel Prize winners 2018 and more

Physioloy or Medicine – James Patrick Allison and Tasuku Honjo

James Patrick Allison  is an American immunologist   who holds the position of professor and chair of immunology and executive director of immunotherapy platform at the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas. His discoveries have led to new cancer treatments for the deadliest cancers. He is also the director of the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) scientific advisory council. He has a longstanding interest in mechanisms of T-cell development and activation, the development of novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy, and is recognized as one of the first people to isolate the T-cell antigen receptor complex protein. In 2014, he was awarded the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences; in 2018, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Tasuku Honjo.

Tasuku Honjo is a Japanese immunologist, and Nobel laureate best known for his identification of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). He is also known for his molecular identification of cytokines: IL-4 and IL-5, as well as the discovery of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that is essential for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. He was elected as a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (2001), as a member of German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina (2003), and also as a member of the Japan Academy (2005). In 2018, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with James P. Allison. He and Allison together had won the 2014 Tang Prize in Biopharmaceutical Science for the same achievement.

Physics- Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland

Gérard Albert Mourou  is a French scientist and pioneer in the field of electrical engineering and lasers. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, along with Donna Strickland, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification, a technique later used to create ultrashort-pulse, very high-intensity (petawatt) laser pulses.

In 1994, Mourou and his team at the University of Michigan discovered that the balance between the self-focusing refraction  and self-attenuating diffraction by ionization and rarefaction of a laser beam of terawatt intensities in the atmosphere creates “filaments” which act as waveguides for the beam thus preventing divergence.

Donna Theo Strickland is a Canadian optical physicist and pioneer in the field of pulsed lasers. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, together with Gérard Mourou, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification. She is a professor at the University of Waterloo. She served as fellow, vice president, and president of The Optical Society, and is currently chair of their Presidential Advisory Committee. Strickland studied for her graduate degree in The Institute of Optics, receiving a Ph.D. degree from the University of Rochester in 1989. She conducted her doctoral research at the associated Laboratory for Laser Energetics, supervised by Gérard Mourou. Strickland and Mourou worked to develop an experimental setup that could raise the peak power of laser pulses, to overcome a limitation, that when the maximal intensity of laser pulses reached gigawatts per square centimetre, self-focusing of the pulses severely damaged the amplifying part of the laser.

Economic Sciences- William Nordhause

William Dawbney Nordhaus is an American economist and Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University, best known for his work in economic modelling and climate change. He is one of the laureates of the 2018 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Nordhaus received the prize “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis”. Nordhaus graduated from Phillips Academy in Andover and subsequently received his BA and MA from Yale in 1963 and 1973, respectively, where he was a member of Skull and Bones. He also holds a Certificat from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques (1962) and a PhD from MIT (1967). He was a Visiting Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge in 1970-1971. He has been a member of the faculty at Yale since 1967, in both the Economics department and the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Nordhaus is the author or editor of over 20 books. He is the co-author of the textbook Economics, the original editions of which were written by fellow Nobel Laureate Paul Samuelson. The book is currently in its 19th edition and has been translated into at least 17 other languages. He has also written several books on global warming and climate change, one of his primary areas of research. Those books include Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change (1994), which won the 2006 Award for “Publication of Enduring Quality” from the Association of Environmental and Resource Economics. Another book, with Joseph Boyer, is Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming (2000). His most recent book is The Climate Casino: Risk, Uncertainty, and Economics for a Warming World.

Chemistry- George Smith, Greg Winter and Frances Arnold

George Pearson Smith  is an American biologist. He is a Curators’ Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri, US. He is best known for phage display, a technique where a specific protein sequence is artificially inserted into the coat protein gene of a bacteriophage, causing the protein to be expressed on the outside of the bacteriophage. Smith first described the technique in 1985 when he displayed peptides on filamentous phage by fusing the peptide of interest onto gene III of filamentous phage.He was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work, sharing his prize with Greg Winter and Frances Arnold. Smith is an advocate for equal rights for Palestinians and Israeli Jews in their common homeland, and a strong supporter of the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement.

Sir Gregory Paul Winter CBE FRS FMedSci   is a  British biochemist best known for his work on the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies. His research career has been based almost entirely at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and the MRC Centre for Protein Engineering, in Cambridge, England. He is credited with invented techniques to both humanise (1986) and, later, to fully humanise using phage display, antibodies for therapeutic uses. Previously, antibodies had been derived from mice, which made them difficult to use in human therapeutics because the human immune system had anti-mouse reactions to them. For these developments Winter was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with George Smith and Frances Arnold. He is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge and was appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge on 2 October 2012.[

Frances Hamilton Arnold (born July 25, 1956) is an American chemical engineer and Nobel Laureate. She is the Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In 2018, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for pioneering the use of directed evolution to engineer enzymes. Arnold is the daughter of Josephine Inman (née Routheau) and nuclear physicist William Howard Arnold, and the granddaughter of Lieutenant General William Howard Arnold. After graduating from Princeton in 1979, Arnold worked as an engineer in South Korea and Brazil and at Colorado’s Solar Energy Research Institute. At the Solar Energy Research Institute (now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory), she worked on designing solar energy facilities for remote locations and helped write United Nations (UN) position papers.

Peace- Nadia Murad and Denis Mukwege

Nadia Murad Basee Taha , born 1993) is an Iraqi Yazidi human rights activist who lives in Germany. In 2014, she was kidnapped from her hometown Kocho and held by the Islamic State for three months. In 2018, she and Denis Mukwege were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for “their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”. She is the first Iraqi and Yazidi to be awarded a Nobel Prize. Murad is the founder of Nadia’s Initiative, an organization dedicated to “helping women and children victimized by genocide, mass atrocities, and human trafficking to heal and rebuild their lives and communities”. Murad was a student living in the village of Kocho in Sinjar, northern Iraq when Islamic State fighters rounded up the Yazidi community in the village killing 600 people – including six of Nadia’s brothers and stepbrothers – and taking the younger women into slavery. That year, Murad was one of more than 6,700 Yazidi women taken prisoner by Islamic State in Iraq. She was captured on 15 September 2014. She was held as a slave in the city of Mosul, and beaten, burned with cigarettes, and raped when trying to escape. Nadia was able to escape after her captor left the house unlocked. Murad was taken in by a neighbouring family, who were able to smuggle her out of the Islamic State controlled area, allowing her to make her way to a refugee camp in Duhok, northern Iraq. She was out of ISIS territory on early September 2014 or in November 2014. In February 2015, she gave her first testimony to reporters of the Belgian daily newspaper La Libre Belgique while she was staying in the Rwanga camp, living in a container. In 2015, she was one of 1,000 women and children to benefit from a refugee programme of the Government of Baden-Württemberg, (Germany), which became her new home.

Denis Mukwege  is a Congolese gynecologist and Pentecostal pastor. He founded and works in Panzi Hospital in Bukavu, where he specializes in the treatment of women who have been raped by armed rebels. He has treated thousands of women who were victims of rape since the Second Congo War, some of them more than once, performing up to ten operations a day during his 17-hour working days. According to The Globe and Mail, Mukwege is “likely the world’s leading expert on repairing injuries of rape”. In 2018, Mukwege and Nadia Murad were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for “their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”.

About Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, literature, peace activism, physics, and physiology or medicine. In 1968, Sweden’s central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, which, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the “Nobel Prize in Economics”.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize.

Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes (and the Prizes in Economic Sciences, from 1969 on) were awarded 590 times to 935 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals. The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the Peace Prize ceremony, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient (known as a “laureate”) receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, £836,000 or ₹73,800,000.) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, and later in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating.

The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.

 Some people refused to take Nobel Prize including Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature because he had consistently declined all official honours.Also  Le Duc Tho,who was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger declined to accept.

Double Noble: The Magnificent Four Who Received The Nobel Prize Twice

Marie Curie – The first person in history to accomplish the feat of twice receiving a Nobel Prize was the Polish scientist Marie Skłodowska Curie, first awarded the prize in Physics and, later, in Chemistry. Initially  she was not considered for Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, but later she was incorporated into the nomination and, in December 1903, the three scientists (Becquerel and the Curies) were presented with the prestigious award. At the awards ceremony, no mention was made of the Curies’ discovery of polonium and radium, as the chemists on the nomination committee insisted that this would merit a future Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The second prize for Curie came on December 10, 1911; however, after the death of Pierre in 1906 in an unfortunate accident, the award fell solely into the hands of Marie.

Linus Pauling – The only person twice decorated with a Nobel Prize not shared with anyone else was Linus Pauling. The first award, the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, recognized his research into the nature of chemical bonding. And eight years later, his militant pacifism during the Cold War, focused primarily on combating nuclear weapons, earned him the Nobel Peace Prize (1962). A dominant figure in the twentieth century chemistry, the American scientist revolutionized the way we see molecules by applying quantum mechanics to chemistry. He also studied in depth the hydrogen bond, protein folding and also got to know like the back of his hand the structure and function of hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carry oxygen in the blood. At the end of the 1940s, frightened by the danger that a nuclear war would pose for mankind, he wrote an appeal to end the testing of atomic bombs, arguing among other things that the fallout from each test would cause thousands of cases of cancers. He gathered signatures from more than 8,000 foreign scientists from 49 different countries. Their campaign culminated with the signing of the first Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.

John Bardeen – The fact that today we can listen to the latest music hits on the radio, watch television, talk by mobile phone or comfortably surf the Internet using computers and tablets owes much to John Bardeen, the only scientist in history to have received two Nobel Prizes in the Physics category. He was an electrical engineer whose studies began at the early age of 15, but later he obtained his doctorate in physics at Princeton University.  It was there that he began to study the atomic structure and properties of semiconductors, i.e. those materials that under certain conditions permit the passage of electric current, but under other conditions do not. A few years later he landed at Bell Labs where, together with Walter Brattain, he developed the transistor, which would come to replace vacuum tubes in countless electronic devices, from headphones to televisions. This invention led him to win the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 along with William B. Shockley. From semiconductors, Bardeen made the leap to studying superconductors, materials that conduct current without resistance or energy loss. It was the current theoretical model of superconductivity, BCS theory (where the “B” stands for John Bardeen), which would win him a second Nobel in 1972.

Frederick Sanger – The fourth person, and so far the last, to join the illustrious club of the double Nobel Prize was Frederick Sanger, an enthusiast of biochemistry who succeeded in determining the amino acid sequence of a protein. Sanger chose none other than insulin, the key hormone in the regulation of glucose metabolism, and for his feat he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1958. His detailed description of the links that form the chemical chain of insulin would make it possible, in 1963, for this to be the first protein synthesized in a laboratory, an advance for which diabetics will be eternally grateful.


Asian Athletics Championships 2019

The 2019 Asian Athletics Championships was the 23rd edition of the Asian Athletics Championships. It was held from 21 to 24 April 2019 at the Khalifa International Stadium in Doha, Qatar.  There are reasons to be satisfied for India by its achievements in the Asian Athletics Meet 2019 with 17 medals including three gold medals. The total came close to chief coach Bahadur Singh’s prediction of 20 medals.  However, it does not compare well with a total of 29 medals including 12 gold, in the 2017 edition of the championships, held at home (Bhubaneswar). This year the top medalist was Bahrain, with its African ‘imports’ with medals tally of 11 gold, one ahead of China’s 10 golds. Notably, in 2017 Bahrain was absent in Bhubaneswar.

Medals tally Top ten Performers at Doha, Qatar

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Bahrain (BHR) 11 7 4 22
2  China (CHN) 9 13 7 29
3  Japan (JPN) 5 4 9 18
4  India (IND) 3 7 7 17
5  Uzbekistan (UZB) 3 0 2 5
6  Qatar (QAT)* 2 1 3 6
7  Thailand (THA) 2 0 2 4
8  Kazakhstan (KAZ) 1 4 3 8
9  Kuwait (KUW) 1 3 0 4
10  Chinese Taipei (TPE) 1 2 1 4

India’s Performance in 23rd Asian Athletic Championship

India claimed 17 medals in all to end at fourth position on the medals’ table in the 23rd Asian Athletics Championships in Doha. In the last edition of the competition being held at home in Bhubaneswar in 2017, had won 29 medals (12 Gold, 5 silver, 12 bronze) thereby topping the medal tally for the first time.This time, Bahrain topped the tally with 11 gold, 7 silver and 4 bronze, followed by China (10 gold, 13 silver, 7 bronze), Japan (5 gold, 4 silver, 9 bronze) and India. This was the second time since 1983 that powerhouse China has been pushed to the second spot. India did that in 2017 while Bahrain did the same this time. This time India won three gold, seven silver and seven bronze.

Gold medals for India

  1. Gomathi Marimuthu brought India’s first gold winning the women’s 800m gold clocking a personal best of 2:02.70 seconds
  2. Tejinder Pal Singh Toor won gold medal on the second day in men’s shot put event.
  3. PU Chithra struck gold in the women’s 1500m on the last day of the competition.

The names of Indian players who won silver medals are as follows:

  1. Annu Rani- women’s javelin throw  with a throw of 60.22m
  2. Avinash Sable: Steeple chaser
  3. Swapna Barman: heptathlete
  4. The 4x400m mixed relay team
  5. The women’s 4x400m relay quartet of Prachi, Poovamma, Saritaben Gayakwad and VK Vismaya finished second with a time of 3:32.21, behind the Bahraini quartet who clocked 3:32.10s.
  6. The men’s 4x400m relay team of Kunhu Mohd, KS Jeevan, Muhammed Anas and Arokia Rajiv finished second with time of 3:03.28, behind Japan (3:02.94).
  7. Ajay Kumar Saroj won a waiting game to take silver in the men’s 1500m. Ajay Kumar Saroj was winner of gold in the 2017 edition

The Indian Bronze medal winners included:

  1. Parul Chaudhary – Distance runner claimed a bronze medal on the opening day of the meet in the women’s 5000m, slipping past a tiring compatriot Sanjivani Jadhav in the final lap of the grueling race.
  2. MR Povamma -Quartermiler MR Povamma grabbed bronze medals on the opening day of the meet.
  3. Sanjivani Jadhav- won a bronze in 10000m race on the third day of the meet
  4. Sprinter Dutee Chand claimed the 200m bronze to make amends for her fifth place finish in 100m

Miracle Girls and inspiring deeds


A daughter of farmers, for Gomathi, who only began professionally running when she was 20, it’s been ten long years of intense struggle. What stands out through her incredible story is the two qualities all the great athletes in the world share—character and conviction. Despite starting her career a lot later than many elite athletes, Gomathi made it great after offering lot of blood, sweat and tears to the game. Despite having a regular a job at the Income Tax department in Bengaluru under the sports quota, Gomathi managed to take time out to train regularly. Years of intense training helped her reach the final of the 800m event at the Asian Championship in Pune in 2013, where she finished seventh. Two years later, in Wuhan, China, she finished fourth in the same event. Now she has won the gold medal. She won despite facing several personal shocks in recent times. According to her life turned upside down as her mother went into depression after dad passed away. It was tough to get her to do anything. The whole family was dependent on her, and months later, she lost her coach at the national camp to a heart attack.

In a classic comeback, Gomathi emerged from the back of the pack and stormed her way through the home straight to clinch the gold medal in a spectacular fashion with her personal best of 2 minutes 02.70 seconds. After all the trials and tribulations, this was Gomathi’s first major gold medal at an international event. The run at Doha beat her previous best at the Federation Cup at Patiala where she finished with 2:03.21s.

PU Chitra

The miracle girl PU Chitra, coached by Sijin N S,  gave a very inspiring performance in the 23rd Asian Athletics Championships in Doha as the Kerala athlete bagged gold for India in the women’s 1500m race on (April 24, the last day of the Meet). Chitra’s victory was clocked at 4 minutes 14.56 seconds. This win also enabled Chitra to qualify for the upcoming International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships in September. During the 2017 Asian Athletics Championships in Bhubaneshwar as well, Chitra had won gold. The 24-year-old athlete born on June 9, 1995, at Mundur in Kerala’s Palakkad District, is the third of four children of Unnikrishnan & Vasantha Kumari, both of whom are daily wage labourers who perform menial jobs to make ends meet. Fighting all odds, Chitra won many state, national and international medals in track and field events. Chitra’s life has been marked with severe hardships as sometimes, her parents were unable to find any work and were forced to survive on leftovers. Reportedly, Chitra even had to sleep empty stomachs on many occasions, however, that did not stop her from practising early in the morning at her government school. It is a resounding proof that sincere and hard work pays, no matter what are the constraints.

Looking Forward

India finished at a respectable 4th position. The medal tally was slightly less than earlier performances because of some of the star players missing the event. India’s journey to Doha edition of Asian Athletic Championship started with doubts. After the high at the Jakarta Asian Games last year, when the country won 19 medals including seven gold and 10 silver, India’s squad to Doha Asian Athletics Championship started with exclusion of some big names including World No. 4 javelin thrower Neeraj Chopra, 800m runner Manjit Singh – both with injuries – and triple jumper Arpinder Singh, who failed to qualify. All of them were gold medalists at the Asian Games.Also missing out due to injury is quarter-miler A. Dharun, who has been on a national record-breaking spree in the hurdles, while other Asiad silver medallists, steeple-chaser Sudha Singh and long jumper Neena Pinto, were nowhere close to their Asian Games form. Tamil Nadu distance runner G. Lakshmanan, the last Asians’ big star in Bhubaneswar with a golden 5000-10,000m double, could not even finish among the medals in last month’s Federation Cup, the Asians’ main qualification meet.

Apart from medal winning performances, there were other encouraging performances by several athletes, not just the medal winners, in Doha. The personal bests by Murli Kumar Gavit (5000m, 1000m), Parul Choudhary (5000m, 3000m steeplechase) and Dutee Chand (100m) were among them. India should now focus on Tokyo and Paris Olympics. After the Jakarta Asian Games, the Athletics Federation of India’s President Adille Sumariwalla had boldly proclaimed that India was an Asian superpower and now needed to focus on the Olympics and the Worlds. With names like Neeraj Chopra, M. Sreeshankar, Tejaswin Shankar and Hima Das, India certainly has athletes who could do well in next year’s Tokyo Olympics and in Paris 2024. Nevertheless, it is still far from expected levels of support that sports should have got in India. The sports infrastructure, the training and nutrition and finally job opportunities for youngsters pursuing games and sports is far from being adequate. India needs to work more and work sincerely in this regard. Increasing budgetary allocation to sports and facilitating schools and colleges to nurture sports talents at early levels would go a long way!


India wrap up CWG 2018 campaign with 66 medals

Performance Ranking

Australia topped with 80 Gold medals, 59 silver medals and 59 bronze medals followed by England (45G, 45 S and 46 B) and India (26 G, 2O S and 20 B). Nine World and 91 CWG Records were broken during the 21st CWG or Gold Coast Games. Commonwealth Games Federation president Louise Martin announced David Liti, New Zealand weightlifter, as the athlete of the games.

Youngest players

At the age of 11, table tennis player from England Anna Hursey was the youngest competitor at the Gold Coast games. From Indian team the youngest player in the Commonwealth Games was 15-year old Anish Bhanwala. He won gold medal in 25m rapid fire pistol event. After wrapping up the gold in the 25m rapid fire pistol event, India’s youngest Commonwealth Games gold-medallist, Anish Bhanwala, has more pressing matters on hand. His focus will now shift from the Belmont Shooting Range at the Commonwealth Games to the CBSE Class X exams. Born in Gohana’s Kasandi village in Sonepat, shooting wasn’t the first sport Anish tried his hand on. He competed at the U-12 modern pentathlon World Championships in 2013 and the Asian modern pentathlon Championships in 2015. Pentathalon comprises shooting, swimming, fencing, equestrianism and cross country running and it is shooting Anish zeroed in on ultimately.

India ranks third with all round performance

From the teen shooting trio of Manu Bhaker, Mehuli Ghosh and Anish Bhanwala, the historic table tennis performance by Manika Batra to the arrival of a very confident Neeraj Chopra on the big stage, India had its next crop of stars ready to challenge the world. The redoubtable Saina Nehwal provided the final day golden touch with her women’s singles gold, much like the 2010 Games where her top finish was a shade more significant for it took the overall tally to 100. With 26 gold, 20 silver and as may bronze medals, India signed off third on the table—a promotion of two positions from Glasgow and it was a combination of youth and experience which delivered the results.

At 2010 Games in New Delhi, India won 101 medal, including 38 gold while at 2002 Manchester Games India had managed a total of 69 medal of which 30 were gold. The likes of M C Mary Kom, Seema Punia and Sushil Kumar showed that experience can never be discounted either, turning back the clock to deliver performances which were nothing short of awe-inspiring. While the shooters, weightlifters, wrestlers and the boxers were expected to bring home the maximum share of medal, there was a significant new addition to that in table tennis.

After just one bronze in the 2014 edition, there were significant concerns about how the performance might shape up this time. But Manika Batra was determined to ensure that things turn out differently. The 22-year-old, who dropped out of college to focus on her game, justified what many would call a massive risk. It was by far the best individual performance by an Indian athlete as she ensnared a historic individual gold, a team gold, a women’s doubles silver and a mixed doubles bronze.

On the other end of the spectrum were Mary Kom and Sushil. Without a shadow of doubt among the greatest athletes of their respective sports but faced with questions about their future quite often now, the duo decided to show what it means to turn the clock back. So, both a 34-year-old Sushil and a 35-year-old Mary Kom gave performances to remember, quite literally schooling their younger opponents just how turn on the style without compromising on the substance.

The sheer diversity of medal winners was a heartwarming aspect of the Games for India. There were medals from squash, although not gold, there were nine medals from boxing, 12 from wrestling, 16 from shooting and nine from weightlifting. In fact, it was the weightlifters who set the ball rolling with their best ever performance—the highlight of which was the absence of any doping suspicion. Records tumbled as the likes of Mirabai Chanu, Sanjita Chanu and Sathish Sivalingam remained heads and shoulders above their competitors.

Shooters were not to be left behind and almost everyday, a gold tumbled out of the Belmont Shooting Centre in Brisbane. The only blip was the seasoned Gagan Narang going empty-handed from the event but the mantle was passed on to the likes of Manu, Anish and Mehuli—the teen trio that lived upto the pre-event hype. With shooting not a part of the 2022 Birmingham CWG, India would be at a massive loss on the medal count and the performance this time is likely to be cherished for a long time to come.

At the badminton courts, it was mostly about Saina and P V Sindhu but K Srikanth continued to create a space of his own, taking down the legendary Lee Chong Wei during the gold-winning team competition. In the Saina vs Sindhu battle, the former came out trumps, displaying a very special kind of aggression in the final.

The boxing arena at the Oxenford Studios was witness to a historic Indian performance in which all eight men in fray won medals—two gold, three silver and three bronze, while Mary Kom continued to be the top performing woman with her gold.

And there was lots to celebrate in track and field too with Neeraj Chopra’s season’s best 86.47m Javelin show for gold being the biggest takeaway. The 20-year-old showed he is one for the future with a performance that had brilliance written all over it.

Seema Punia delivered a silver, her second successive, in discus throw, a remarkable achievement for the 34-year-old, whose doping past continues to cast a shadow on her present.

But there were disappointments too, the biggest being the two hockey teams. The women managed to improve to fourth this time from fifth of the past two editions, but the men, silver-medallists in 2010 and 2014 embarrassed themselves with a fourth-place finish. Manpreet Singh’s team lacked finesse and resolve, the lowest point of its campaign being a 2-2 draw with a Pakistan in shambles.

The gymnasts, cyclists and swimmers were not really expected to throw up surprises and they didn’t either, fading into oblivion without much of a fight.

Away from the furore, however, India could certainly be glad about emergence of a new crop of athletes ready to conquer the world.

Relevant Information on Commonwealth Games 2018

The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, between 4 and 15 April 2018. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games and the first time a major multi-sport event achieved gender equality by having an equal number of events for males and female atheletes.

More than 4,400 athletes from 71 Commonwealth Games Associations took part including Gambia where were readmitted as a Commonwealth Games Federation member on 31 March 2018. With 275 sets of medals, the games featured 19 Commonwealth sports, including beach volleyball, para triathlon and women’s rugby sevens. These sporting events took place at 14 venues in the host city, two venues in Brisbane and one venue each in Cairns and Townsville.

These were the first Commonwealth Games to take place under the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) presidency of Louise Martin, CBE. The host city Gold Coast was announced at the CGF General Assembly in Basseterre, Saint Kitts, on 11 November 2011. Gold Coast became the seventh Oceanian city to host the Commonwealth Games. These were the eighth games to be held in Oceania and Southern Hemisphere.

The official motto for the 2018 Commonwealth Games was “Share the Dream”. It was chosen to highlight the dreams and experience at the games that were shared by participants of the games, ranging from athletes to volunteers and the host country Australia to the world including the Commonwealth nations. The emblem of the 2018 Commonwealth Games was a silhouette of the skyline and landscape of Gold Coast, the host city of the games.[ Borobi was named as the mascot of the 2018 Commonwealth Games in 2016. Borobi is a blue koala, with indigenous markings on its body. The term “borobi” means koala in the Yugambeh language, spoken by the indigenous Yugambeh people of the Gold Coast and surrounding areas.[


Commonwealth Games 2018: Manika Batra leads India to historic women table tennis gold

Manika Batra inspired India to a historic gold medal with her stunning singles victories, fashioning an unthinkable 3-1 victory over four-time gold medallists Singapore in the final of the women’s team event at the Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast. World No. 58 Batra first scored the biggest of her career by humbling world number four and multiple Olympic medallist Feng Tianwei 3-2 before brushing aside 100th-ranked Yihan Zhou 3-0 to engineer a sensational win over the mighty Singapore side. It was mother of all upsets as prior to this final, the Singapore women’s team had never lost in the Commonwealth Games since the sport was inducted in the program way back in 2002.

The victory tasted even sweeter as the women had returned empty handed from the Glasgow edition four years ago. It was only the second table tennis team gold for India at the Games with the men achieving the feat in the 2006 Melbourne edition.

Earlier in the day, India had blanked England 3-0 to reach the women’s team final for the second time. While Batra was the architect of India’s historic win, the experienced pairing of Madhurika Patkar and Mouma Das played the supporting role to perfection by winning the crucial doubles tie 3-1 (11-7 11-6 8-11 11-7) against Zhou and Mengyu Yu for a 2-1 lead in the final. After Batra shocked Feng 3-2 (11-8 8-11 7-11 11-9 11-7) in the opening singles, Mengyu had equalized for Singapore with a straight game win over Patkar. Batra then proved to be too good for Yihan, who failed to read her deceptive strokes. The Singaporean put a back hand long as the Indian completed a 3-0 (11-7 11-4 11-7), leading to wild celebrations.


Indian Girls Fire in the Bull’s eye, win gold and silver in 10m pistol category at CWG

Kudos! A great feat indeed, India loves both the girls who brought pride and glory to the country in women’s 10 air pistol competition at Commonwealth Games!

India’s 16-year-old Manu Bhaker comfortably won the gold in women’s 10 air pistol while Heena Sidhu staged a remarkable recovery to secure silver at the 21st Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast on Sunday (April 08). Bhaker’s calm and composure belied her age as she shot 240.9 to break the Commonwealth Games record, finishing well ahead of her senior teammate Sidhu, who aggregated 234. The bronze medal went to Australia’s Elena Galiabovitch who ended with 214.9. Bhaker was the overwhelming favourite to win the event, having bagged gold medals at the 2018 ISSF World Cup in Guadalajara, Mexico and the following Junior World Cup in Sydney. Sidhu too did well to win silver after she was on the verge of elimination at one stage. She had also won a silver at the Delhi Games in 2010.


21st   Commonwealth Games: The country rejoices weightlifting Gold rush for indicating a and healthier India 

Poonam Yadav, the brave daughter of India, made a memorable Sunday of  April 08 for India by winning the fifth weightlifting gold for India with a top finish in the 69kg category of the 21st Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast. A bronze-medallist from the 2014 Glasgow edition, Poonam lifted 222kg (110kg+122kg) to claim gold ahead of England’s Sarah Davies, who finshed with 217kg (95kg+122kg). Earlier Mirabai Chanu (48kg), Sanjita Chanu (53kg), Sathish Sivalingam (77kg) and Venkat Rahul Ragala (85kg) had claimed gold medals. Mirabai Chanu’s 84kg lift in snatch and 108kg in clean and jerk won India its second gold medal of the Games. It’s also the 24-year-old’s second consecutive gold at the Commonwealth Games. Four years ago in Glasgow, Chanu had dominated the 48kg category, emerging as a strong contender for the Rio Olympics. Sanjita Chanu won her second successive gold medal at the Commonwealth Games in the 2018 edition held in Gold Coast, Australia. She had shifted to a higher weight category of 53kg and secured the title with a total of 192kg. En-route to her gold medal, she bettered her performance from the previous edition and broke the Games record for the Snatch category with a lift of 84kg; she lifted a weight of 108kg in the Clean and jerk segment. At the 2018 Commonwealth Games Sathish Shivalingam he won gold medal in 77kg category. He lifted 144 kg in snatch games record and 173 kg in clean and jerk. At the 2014 Commonwealth Games, Sivalingam won the gold medal in the men’s 77 kg, with 149 kg snatch, and 179 kg clean and jerk lifts, totalling 328 kg. His lift of 149 kg in the snatch, set a new games record. Sathish born in Sathuvachari, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India to Sivalingam and Deivanai. His father Sivalingam an ex-serviceman who won gold medals at national level and now works as a security guard at VIT University, Vellore. won gold medal in the men’s 85 kg weight class at the 2018 Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast, Australia. He lifted a total of 338 kg – 151 kg in snatch and 187 kg in clean and jerk. He won the 4th gold medal for India in the weightlifting category at the games.Manipur Government announced a reward of Rs.  lakh each to the girls from the state-   Khumukcham Sanjita Chanu had won a gold in women’s 48kg weightlifting at the 2014 Commonwealth Games.