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Jainism- Religion, Scripture and Philosophy

Jainism-Rock Cut Statues at Gwalior

The followers of this religion believe that its roots within India are even older than the Vedic Religion. The naked statues resembling the Jain monks amongst the remains of the Indus Valley Civilization, do substantiate some of the claims.  However, there is no conclusive evidence. Origin According to Jain tradition, the first

Vedanta or Uttar Mimamsa Philosophy

Shankaracharya- Advaita Vedanta

‘Vedanta’ literally means’ the conclusion of the ‘Vedas’.Primarily the word stood for the Upanishads though afterwards its denotation widened to include all thoughts, developed out of the Upanishads. The central theme is that enunciated in the Upanishads - the doctrine of Brahman and the embodiment of the unconditioned self. The great

Mimamsa Philosophy

mimamsa philosophy

The Mimamsa is called the Purva-Mimamsa while Vedanta is called the Uttra-Mimamsa. Jaimini’s sutra in twelve elaborate chapters, laid the foundation of Purva Mimansa. Sabarswami wrote the major commentary or Bhashya on this work. The two most important mimansak are Kumarila Bhatta and Prabhakara, who founded the two schools of Mimansa. Mimamsa

Vaisheshika Philosophy

The Vaisheshika school was founded by Kanada in the 6th Century B.C., and it is atomist and pluralist in nature. The basis of the school's philosophy is that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms, and Brahman is regarded as the fundamental force that causes consciousness in these atoms. The earliest systematic exposition of the Vaisheshika

Nyaya Philosophy

The Nyaya school was founded by Gautama with his Nyaya-sutra, but evolved greatly after that.  The Nyaya school’s chief concern was epistemology. What is correct thinking, and how can we come to know reality? Only when we know the answers to these questions can we achieve liberation. How do we test if

Yoga Philosophy

yoga philosophy

The Yoga darshana, founded by Patanjali in the 2nd century B.C., accepted the metaphysics of Samkhya, but added God. God was a perfect, eternal, omniscient being, and the highest object of meditation. The Yoga argument for God was as follows: Whatever comes in degrees must have a maximum. Knowledge comes in degrees, thus

Later Vedic Age 1000 B.C.- 600 B.C

Literature The period that followed Rig Vedic Age is known as Later Vedic Age.This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas. Expansion All these later Vedic texts were compiled

Early Vedic Period-1500 B.C. – 1000 B.C.


Aryans After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic civilization flourished in India. The people who were responsible for the evolution of this civilization called themselves Aryas or Aryans. They entered into India from the north-west. They spoke the Indo-European languages from which modern languages like Sanskrit, Persian, Latin, Greek, and Gothic