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Know the Nobel Prize winners 2018 and more

Physioloy or Medicine – James Patrick Allison and Tasuku Honjo

James Patrick Allison  is an American immunologist   who holds the position of professor and chair of immunology and executive director of immunotherapy platform at the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas. His discoveries have led to new cancer treatments for the deadliest cancers. He is also the director of the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) scientific advisory council. He has a longstanding interest in mechanisms of T-cell development and activation, the development of novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy, and is recognized as one of the first people to isolate the T-cell antigen receptor complex protein. In 2014, he was awarded the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences; in 2018, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Tasuku Honjo.

Tasuku Honjo is a Japanese immunologist, and Nobel laureate best known for his identification of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). He is also known for his molecular identification of cytokines: IL-4 and IL-5, as well as the discovery of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that is essential for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. He was elected as a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (2001), as a member of German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina (2003), and also as a member of the Japan Academy (2005). In 2018, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with James P. Allison. He and Allison together had won the 2014 Tang Prize in Biopharmaceutical Science for the same achievement.

Physics- Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland

Gérard Albert Mourou  is a French scientist and pioneer in the field of electrical engineering and lasers. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, along with Donna Strickland, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification, a technique later used to create ultrashort-pulse, very high-intensity (petawatt) laser pulses.

In 1994, Mourou and his team at the University of Michigan discovered that the balance between the self-focusing refraction  and self-attenuating diffraction by ionization and rarefaction of a laser beam of terawatt intensities in the atmosphere creates “filaments” which act as waveguides for the beam thus preventing divergence.

Donna Theo Strickland is a Canadian optical physicist and pioneer in the field of pulsed lasers. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, together with Gérard Mourou, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification. She is a professor at the University of Waterloo. She served as fellow, vice president, and president of The Optical Society, and is currently chair of their Presidential Advisory Committee. Strickland studied for her graduate degree in The Institute of Optics, receiving a Ph.D. degree from the University of Rochester in 1989. She conducted her doctoral research at the associated Laboratory for Laser Energetics, supervised by Gérard Mourou. Strickland and Mourou worked to develop an experimental setup that could raise the peak power of laser pulses, to overcome a limitation, that when the maximal intensity of laser pulses reached gigawatts per square centimetre, self-focusing of the pulses severely damaged the amplifying part of the laser.

Economic Sciences- William Nordhause

William Dawbney Nordhaus is an American economist and Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University, best known for his work in economic modelling and climate change. He is one of the laureates of the 2018 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Nordhaus received the prize “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis”. Nordhaus graduated from Phillips Academy in Andover and subsequently received his BA and MA from Yale in 1963 and 1973, respectively, where he was a member of Skull and Bones. He also holds a Certificat from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques (1962) and a PhD from MIT (1967). He was a Visiting Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge in 1970-1971. He has been a member of the faculty at Yale since 1967, in both the Economics department and the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Nordhaus is the author or editor of over 20 books. He is the co-author of the textbook Economics, the original editions of which were written by fellow Nobel Laureate Paul Samuelson. The book is currently in its 19th edition and has been translated into at least 17 other languages. He has also written several books on global warming and climate change, one of his primary areas of research. Those books include Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change (1994), which won the 2006 Award for “Publication of Enduring Quality” from the Association of Environmental and Resource Economics. Another book, with Joseph Boyer, is Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming (2000). His most recent book is The Climate Casino: Risk, Uncertainty, and Economics for a Warming World.

Chemistry- George Smith, Greg Winter and Frances Arnold

George Pearson Smith  is an American biologist. He is a Curators’ Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri, US. He is best known for phage display, a technique where a specific protein sequence is artificially inserted into the coat protein gene of a bacteriophage, causing the protein to be expressed on the outside of the bacteriophage. Smith first described the technique in 1985 when he displayed peptides on filamentous phage by fusing the peptide of interest onto gene III of filamentous phage.He was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work, sharing his prize with Greg Winter and Frances Arnold. Smith is an advocate for equal rights for Palestinians and Israeli Jews in their common homeland, and a strong supporter of the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement.

Sir Gregory Paul Winter CBE FRS FMedSci   is a  British biochemist best known for his work on the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies. His research career has been based almost entirely at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and the MRC Centre for Protein Engineering, in Cambridge, England. He is credited with invented techniques to both humanise (1986) and, later, to fully humanise using phage display, antibodies for therapeutic uses. Previously, antibodies had been derived from mice, which made them difficult to use in human therapeutics because the human immune system had anti-mouse reactions to them. For these developments Winter was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with George Smith and Frances Arnold. He is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge and was appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge on 2 October 2012.[

Frances Hamilton Arnold (born July 25, 1956) is an American chemical engineer and Nobel Laureate. She is the Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In 2018, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for pioneering the use of directed evolution to engineer enzymes. Arnold is the daughter of Josephine Inman (née Routheau) and nuclear physicist William Howard Arnold, and the granddaughter of Lieutenant General William Howard Arnold. After graduating from Princeton in 1979, Arnold worked as an engineer in South Korea and Brazil and at Colorado’s Solar Energy Research Institute. At the Solar Energy Research Institute (now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory), she worked on designing solar energy facilities for remote locations and helped write United Nations (UN) position papers.

Peace- Nadia Murad and Denis Mukwege

Nadia Murad Basee Taha , born 1993) is an Iraqi Yazidi human rights activist who lives in Germany. In 2014, she was kidnapped from her hometown Kocho and held by the Islamic State for three months. In 2018, she and Denis Mukwege were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for “their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”. She is the first Iraqi and Yazidi to be awarded a Nobel Prize. Murad is the founder of Nadia’s Initiative, an organization dedicated to “helping women and children victimized by genocide, mass atrocities, and human trafficking to heal and rebuild their lives and communities”. Murad was a student living in the village of Kocho in Sinjar, northern Iraq when Islamic State fighters rounded up the Yazidi community in the village killing 600 people – including six of Nadia’s brothers and stepbrothers – and taking the younger women into slavery. That year, Murad was one of more than 6,700 Yazidi women taken prisoner by Islamic State in Iraq. She was captured on 15 September 2014. She was held as a slave in the city of Mosul, and beaten, burned with cigarettes, and raped when trying to escape. Nadia was able to escape after her captor left the house unlocked. Murad was taken in by a neighbouring family, who were able to smuggle her out of the Islamic State controlled area, allowing her to make her way to a refugee camp in Duhok, northern Iraq. She was out of ISIS territory on early September 2014 or in November 2014. In February 2015, she gave her first testimony to reporters of the Belgian daily newspaper La Libre Belgique while she was staying in the Rwanga camp, living in a container. In 2015, she was one of 1,000 women and children to benefit from a refugee programme of the Government of Baden-Württemberg, (Germany), which became her new home.

Denis Mukwege  is a Congolese gynecologist and Pentecostal pastor. He founded and works in Panzi Hospital in Bukavu, where he specializes in the treatment of women who have been raped by armed rebels. He has treated thousands of women who were victims of rape since the Second Congo War, some of them more than once, performing up to ten operations a day during his 17-hour working days. According to The Globe and Mail, Mukwege is “likely the world’s leading expert on repairing injuries of rape”. In 2018, Mukwege and Nadia Murad were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for “their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”.

About Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, literature, peace activism, physics, and physiology or medicine. In 1968, Sweden’s central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, which, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the “Nobel Prize in Economics”.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize.

Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes (and the Prizes in Economic Sciences, from 1969 on) were awarded 590 times to 935 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals. The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the Peace Prize ceremony, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient (known as a “laureate”) receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, £836,000 or ₹73,800,000.) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, and later in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating.

The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.

 Some people refused to take Nobel Prize including Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature because he had consistently declined all official honours.Also  Le Duc Tho,who was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger declined to accept.

Double Noble: The Magnificent Four Who Received The Nobel Prize Twice

Marie Curie – The first person in history to accomplish the feat of twice receiving a Nobel Prize was the Polish scientist Marie Skłodowska Curie, first awarded the prize in Physics and, later, in Chemistry. Initially  she was not considered for Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, but later she was incorporated into the nomination and, in December 1903, the three scientists (Becquerel and the Curies) were presented with the prestigious award. At the awards ceremony, no mention was made of the Curies’ discovery of polonium and radium, as the chemists on the nomination committee insisted that this would merit a future Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The second prize for Curie came on December 10, 1911; however, after the death of Pierre in 1906 in an unfortunate accident, the award fell solely into the hands of Marie.

Linus Pauling – The only person twice decorated with a Nobel Prize not shared with anyone else was Linus Pauling. The first award, the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, recognized his research into the nature of chemical bonding. And eight years later, his militant pacifism during the Cold War, focused primarily on combating nuclear weapons, earned him the Nobel Peace Prize (1962). A dominant figure in the twentieth century chemistry, the American scientist revolutionized the way we see molecules by applying quantum mechanics to chemistry. He also studied in depth the hydrogen bond, protein folding and also got to know like the back of his hand the structure and function of hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carry oxygen in the blood. At the end of the 1940s, frightened by the danger that a nuclear war would pose for mankind, he wrote an appeal to end the testing of atomic bombs, arguing among other things that the fallout from each test would cause thousands of cases of cancers. He gathered signatures from more than 8,000 foreign scientists from 49 different countries. Their campaign culminated with the signing of the first Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.

John Bardeen – The fact that today we can listen to the latest music hits on the radio, watch television, talk by mobile phone or comfortably surf the Internet using computers and tablets owes much to John Bardeen, the only scientist in history to have received two Nobel Prizes in the Physics category. He was an electrical engineer whose studies began at the early age of 15, but later he obtained his doctorate in physics at Princeton University.  It was there that he began to study the atomic structure and properties of semiconductors, i.e. those materials that under certain conditions permit the passage of electric current, but under other conditions do not. A few years later he landed at Bell Labs where, together with Walter Brattain, he developed the transistor, which would come to replace vacuum tubes in countless electronic devices, from headphones to televisions. This invention led him to win the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 along with William B. Shockley. From semiconductors, Bardeen made the leap to studying superconductors, materials that conduct current without resistance or energy loss. It was the current theoretical model of superconductivity, BCS theory (where the “B” stands for John Bardeen), which would win him a second Nobel in 1972.

Frederick Sanger – The fourth person, and so far the last, to join the illustrious club of the double Nobel Prize was Frederick Sanger, an enthusiast of biochemistry who succeeded in determining the amino acid sequence of a protein. Sanger chose none other than insulin, the key hormone in the regulation of glucose metabolism, and for his feat he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1958. His detailed description of the links that form the chemical chain of insulin would make it possible, in 1963, for this to be the first protein synthesized in a laboratory, an advance for which diabetics will be eternally grateful.

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